RCA1 and BRCA2 are two tumour suppressor genes. Normally, these genes help prevent cancer by producing proteins that repair damage to DNA (the genetic material of a cell). Some changes (mutations) of these genes disrupt the function of the protein product and are associated with hereditary cancers of the breast and ovary.
The BRCA1 / 2 tests are only recommended for certain individuals at high risk of BRCA1 / 2 mutation, including those with:
- A family member with a mutation in the BRCA1 / 2 genes (or other hereditary genetic mutation linked to breast cancer)
- Personal history of breast cancer at age 45 or younger
- Personal history of triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, progesterone receptor-negative and HER2 negative) diagnosed at age 60 or younger
- Ashkenazi Jewish heritage and personal history of breast cancer
- Personal history of breast cancer between 46 and 50 years of age and a close family member (parent, brother, sister, child, grandparent, grandchild, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece or first cousin) in whom a Breast cancer or aggressive prostate cancer have been diagnosed
- Personal history of breast cancer at any age and close family member diagnosed with breast cancer at age 50 or younger
- Personal history of breast cancer at any age and at least 2 close family members diagnosed with breast cancer at any age
- Personal history of breast cancer at any age and a close family member diagnosed with pancreatic cancer or metastatic prostate cancer at any age
- A close family member diagnosed with breast cancer at age 45 or younger
- Personal or family history of ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, aggressive prostate cancer or metastatic prostate cancer
- Personal or family history of breast cancer in humans
Your family is very unlikely to carry the BRCA1 / 2 mutations if you or a family member is the only person in your family with breast cancer and breast cancer has occurred at a certain age or older age.
In most cases, genetic testing is not recommended when the risk of mutation is low. Most breast cancers are not due to BRCA1 / 2 or another hereditary genetic mutation linked to breast cancer.
The BRCA1 / 2 tests require a simple procedure based on an oral swab. Once the samples are taken, they are sent to our laboratory for an accurate clinical analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Aware of the importance of these tests, we make no effort to provide results and therefore offer a period of one week (additional costs). Knowing that the first results can help you and your health care provider act before cancer develops, we make sure that the committed chronology is respected.